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RULES AND REGULATIONS

Title 22--EDUCATION

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

[22 PA. CODE CH. 4]

Academic Standards and Assessment for Career Education and Work

[36 Pa.B. 3528]
[Saturday, July 8, 2006]

   The State Board of Education (Board) amends Chapter 4 (relating to academic standards and assessment) to read as set forth in Annex A.

   Chapter 4 sets forth requirements for academic standards and assessment certification of professional personnel in public schools. This final-form rulemaking establishes academic standards for career education and work as provided in § 4.12(a)(5) (relating to academic standards).

Statutory Authority

   The Board takes this action under section 2603-B of the Public School Code of 1949 (code) (24 P. S. § 26-2603-B) and other sections of the code.

Background

   This final-form rulemaking defines the academic standards for Career Education and Work to be achieved by students enrolled at various grade levels in the public schools of this Commonwealth. Academic standards for Career Education and Work are organized into four areas; (1) career awareness and preparation; (2) career acquisition (getting a job); (3) career retention and advancement, and (4) entrepreneurship. Specific standards describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of third, fifth, eighth and eleventh grade.

Summary of Public Comments and Responses to Proposed Rulemaking

   The proposed rulemaking was published at 35 Pa.B. 6118 (November 5, 2005). The proposed rulemaking was also published on the Department of Education (Department) website at www.pde.state.pa.us. The Board accepted formal written comments during a 30-day public comment period after publication of the proposed rulemaking.

   The Board received comments from the Independent Regulatory Review Commission (IRRC), the Education Law Center and The Education Trust.

   Following is a summary of the comments and the Board's response to those comments.

General

   Comment:  IRRC suggested that the Board consider adding language to help to ensure that students with disabilities will have the opportunity to be adequately prepared for the workforce.

   Response:  While the Board concurs with the intent of this recommendation, it does not agree that the academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do, are the proper place to impose requirements for the instruction of students with disabilities. The academic standards specify what is taught in public schools, not how it is to be taught. Nor do the academic standards address the rights of individual groups of students such as those with disabilities. Those rights are outlined in other chapters of the Board's regulations.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center included a number of comments relative to other chapters of Board regulations that address vocational and career education and prekindergarten.

   Response:  The comments regarding prekindergarten are not relevant to this final-form rulemaking. The recommendations regarding the addition of regulatory requirements for the instruction of students with disabilities in career education programs are not within the scope of the academic standards. The academic standards for career education and work address what all students, not only those enrolled in vocational education programs, are to know and be able to do.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center recommended that a statement be included in the introduction that the standards be used to guide Individualized Education Program teams and that the standards cannot be used as the basis for excluding a student with a disability from career or vocational education programs.

   Response:  These academic standards apply to all public school students, including those with disabilities. It appears from the comments made by the Education Law Center that it believes these standards apply only to students enrolled in vocational education programs. This is not true. Public schools, including vocational and technical schools, are to provide instruction to all students that addresses these academic standards. Schools may provide instruction through a course or a series of courses or by integrating the academic content into existing courses.

§ 13.1.  Career Awareness and Preparation.

   Comment:  The Education Trust suggested that the standards be used to help inform students to understand the connection among career development, their own unique career growth process, the curriculum being taught and the academic development decisions they make. The Education Trust also recommended that the standards address the personalization of career awareness and demonstrating career knowledge.

   Response:  The Board added two standards to this section as recommended by The Education Trust.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center recommended adding the term ''area vocational technical schools (AVTS)'' to standards 13.1.5.C and 13.1.8.C. It also suggested adding to standard 13.1.8.C that students examine the option to attend an AVTS for high school.

   Response:  Standard 13.1.5.C already refers to career and technical centers, which is the current name used for what were previously called AVTSs. To improve clarity, the Board amended the listing for career and technical centers to indicate that they were formerly called AVTSs and that career and technical education programs are also offered in comprehensive high schools. The Board does not believe the recommended language for standard 13.1.8.C is necessary, as schools already provide orientation programs to students regarding options to enroll in career and technical education programs.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center recommended that the term ''disability accommodations'' be added to standard 13.1.5.D.

   Response:  The Board does not believe the addition of the term ''disability accommodations'' is necessary, as this would fall under the existing category of working conditions.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center recommended that the term ''vocational rehabilitation centers'' be added to standard 13.1.11.E.

   Response:  The Board added the term to the list of career preparation opportunities.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center suggested adding the term ''accommodations required, if any'' to standard 13.1.8.F.

   Response:  The Board does not believe that the addition of this term is necessary, as the list is not designed to be all-inclusive.

§ 13.2.  Career Acquisition (Getting a Job).

   Comment:  The Education Law Center suggested that the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) (42 U.S.C.A. §§ 12101--12210) be included in the list of laws and regulations included in standards 13.2.3.8.E and 13.2.3.11.E. It also recommended that the term ''self advocacy'' be included in standards 13.2.3.3.E, 13.2.3.5.E and 13.2.3.8.E.

   Response:  The Board has added the ADA to standards 13.2.3.8.E. and 13.2.3.11.E. The Board also added the term ''self-advocacy'' to grades 8 and 11 for standard 13.2.3.*.E. The Board does not believe instruction or standards on self-advocacy is appropriate for grades 3 or 5.

§ 13.3.  Career Retention and Advancement.

   Comment:  IRRC suggested that standards 13.3.3.F and 13.3.5.F that require ''students to identify changes that occur at both home and school'' be clarified as to what type of changes students should identify and the relevance of these to Career Retention and Advancement.

   Response:  The Board revised these standards to improve their clarity as to what is expected of students.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center recommended that language be added to standard 13.3.*.B. for each grade level that would provide students with the knowledge and skills to identify each member of a work team's individual strengths and weaknesses and how accommodating a member's disabilities will enhance the member's contribution.

   Response:  The Board believes the recommendation is unrealistic in terms of both the ability of classroom teachers to provide effective instruction on this recommendation or that these skills are appropriate for all age levels of students.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center suggested including ADA accommodations in standard 13.3.8.F.

   Response:  The Board has inserted ADA accommodations as suggested.

XXXIX.  Glossary

   Comment:  IRRC identified the terms ''Child Labor Laws,'' ''non-traditional careers,'' ''O*NET'' and ''traditional careers'' included in the Glossary that were used differently in the proposed standards.

   Response:  The Board will request that the Legislative Reference Bureau edit the final-form rulemaking so that the terms ''child labor laws,'' ''nontraditional careers'' and ''O*NET'' follow a consistent format. The definition of ''traditional careers'' was retained in the Glossary.

   Comment:  The Education Law Center suggested adding ''Americans with Disabilities Act'' to the list of terms in the Glossary.

   Response:  The Board added the term ''Americans with Disabilities Act (Pub. L. No. 101-336)''to the Glossary.

Fiscal Impact and Paperwork Requirements

   Costs to implement this final-form rulemaking may include curriculum development and the professional development of teachers. These costs may vary by school district. Curriculum development is an ongoing activity for schools and is typically part of their normal budgeting. Costs associated with aligning curricula with these standards at the local level will be minimized by technical assistance in curriculum development provided by the Department and intermediate unit staff using existing resources.

   Professional development of teachers is an ongoing activity for schools and is addressed in the normal budgeting of school districts and the Department. Specific programs designed to support the implementation of these standards will minimize any financial impact on school districts.

   Professional development is provided through Governor's Institutes for Teachers and is included within current year appropriations. In addition, the act of November 23, 1999 (P. L. 529, No. 48) (Act 48) establishes a requirement for all educators to engage in continuing professional education. Act 48 also requires the Department to provide 40 hours of professional development annually at no cost to teachers. Online professional development courses may be developed on the Career Education and Work academic standards.

Effective Date

   The final-form rulemaking is effective upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.

Sunset Date

   In accordance with its policy and practice respecting all regulations promulgated by it, the Board will review the effectiveness of Chapter 49 after 4 years. Therefore, no sunset date is necessary.

Regulatory Review

   Under section 5(a) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5(a)), on October 17, 2005, the Board submitted a copy of the notice of proposed rulemaking, published at 35 Pa.B. 6118, to IRRC and the Chairpersons of the House and Senate Committees on Education for review and comment.

   Under section 5(c) of the Regulatory Review Act, IRRC and the Committees were provided with copies of the comments received during the public comment period, as well as other documents when requested. In preparing the final-form rulemaking, the Board has considered all comments from IRRC, the House and Senate Committees and the public.

   Under section 5.1(j.2) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5a(j.2)), on May 31, 2006, the final-form rulemaking was deemed approved by the House and Senate Committees. Under section 5.1(e) of the Regulatory Review Act, IRRC met on June 1, 2006, and approved the final-form rulemaking.

Contact Person

   The official responsible for information on this final-form rulemaking is Jim Buckheit, Executive Director, State Board of Education, 333 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17126-0333, (717) 787-3787 or TDD (717) 787-7367.

Findings

   The Board finds that:

   (1) Public notice of the intention to adopt this final-form rulemaking was given under sections 201 and 202 of the act of July 31, 1968 (P. L. 769, No. 240) (45 P. S. §§ 1201 and 1202) and the regulations promulgated thereunder, 1 Pa. Code §§ 7.1 and 7.2.

   (2) A public comment period was provided as required by law and all comments were considered.

   (3) The final-form rulemaking is necessary and appropriate for the administration of the code.

Order

   The Board, acting under authorizing statute, orders that:

   (a) The regulations of the Board, 22 Pa. Code Chapter 4, are amended by adding Appendix E to read as set forth in Annex A.

   (b) The Executive Director shall submit this order and Annex A to the Office of General Counsel and the Office of Attorney General for review and approval as to legality and form as required by law.

   (c) The Executive Director shall certify this order and Annex A and deposit them with the Legislative Reference Bureau as required by law.

   (d) This order is effective upon final-form publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.

JAMES E. BUCKHEIT,   
Executive Director

   (Editor's Note:  For the text of the order of the Independent Regulatory Review Commission, relating to this document, see 36 Pa.B. 3051 (June 17, 2006).)

   Fiscal Note:  Fiscal Note 6-296 remains valid for the final adoption of the subject regulations.

Annex A

TITLE 22.  EDUCATION

PART I.  STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Subpart A.  MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 4.  ACADEMIC STANDARDS AND ASSESSMENT

APPENDIX E

Academic Standards for Career Education
and Work

XXXVII.  TABLE OF CONTENTS

IntroductionXXXVIII.

THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Career Awareness and Preparation13.1.

   A.  Abilities and Aptitudes
B.  Personal Interests
C.  Nontraditional Workplace Roles
D.  Local Career Preparation Opportunities
E.  Career Selection Influences
F.  Preparation for Careers
G.  Career Plan Components
H.  Relationship Between Education and Career

Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)13.2.

   A.  Interviewing Skills
B.  Resources
C.  Career Acquisition Documents
D.  Career Planning Portfolios
E.  Career Acquisition Process

Career Retention and Advancement13.3.

   A.  Work Habits
B.  Cooperation and Teamwork
C.  Group Interaction
D.  Budgeting
E.  Time Management
F.  Workplace Changes
G.  Lifelong Learning

Entrepreneurship13.4.

   A.  Risks and Rewards
B.  Character Traits
C.  Business Plan

GlossaryXXXIX.

XXXVII.  INTRODUCTION

   The Academic Standards for Career Education and Work reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students experience as they progress through school. Career Education and Work Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (3, 5, 8 and 11) in four areas:

   *  13.1 Career Awareness and Preparation

   *  13.2 Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)

   *  13.3 Career Retention and Advancement

   *  13.4 Entrepreneurship

   Pennsylvania's economic future depends on having a well-educated and skilled workforce. No student should leave secondary education without a solid foundation in Career Education and Work. It is the rapidly changing workplace and the demand for continuous learning and innovation on the part of the workers that drive the need to establish academic standards in Career Education and Work.

   Through a comprehensive approach, Career Education and Work Standards complement all disciplines and other academic standards. If Pennsylvania's students are to succeed in the workplace, there are certain skills that they need to obtain prior to graduation from high school. These skills have been identified in the Career Education and Work Standards, but it is up to individual school districts to decide how they are to be taught. Districts can implement integration strategies within existing disciplines or can implement stand-alone courses to specifically address these standards.

   A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

13.1. Career Awareness and Preparation
13.1.3. GRADE 313.1.5. GRADE 513.1.8. GRADE 813.1.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.  Recognize that individuals have unique interests.
A.  Describe the impact of individual interests and abilities on career choices. A.  Relate careers to individual interests, abilities and aptitudes. A.  Relate careers to individual interests, abilities and aptitudes.
B.  Identify current personal interests. B.  Describe the impact of personal interest and abilities on career choices. B.  Relate careers to personal interests, abilities and aptitudes. B.  Analyze career options based on personal interests, abilities, aptitudes, achievements and goals.
C.  Recognize that the roles of individuals at home, in the workplace and in the community are constantly changing. C.  Relate the impact of change to both traditional and nontraditional careers. C.  Explain how both traditional and nontraditional careers offer or hinder career opportunities. C.  Analyze how the changing roles of individuals in the workplace relate to new opportunities within career choices.
D.  Identify the range of jobs available in the community. D.  Describe the range of career training programs in the community such as, but not limited to:
*  Two-and-four year    colleges
*  Career and technical    education programs    at centers (formerly    AVTS) and high    schools
*  CareerLinks
*  Community/recreation    centers
*  Faith-based    organizations
*  Local industry training    centers
*  Military
*  Registered    apprenticeship
*  Vocational    rehabilitation centers
*  Web-based training
D.  Explain the relationship of career training programs to employment opportunities. D.  Evaluate school-based opportunities for career awareness/preparation, such as, but not limited to:
*  Career days
*  Career portfolio
*  Community service
*  Cooperative education
*  Graduation/senior    project
*  Internship
*  Job shadowing
*  Part-time employment
*  Registered    apprenticeship
*  School-based enterprise
E.  Describe the work done by school personnel and other individuals in the community. E.  Describe the factors that influence career choices, such as, but not limited to:
*  Geographic location
*  Job description
*  Salaries/benefits
*  Work schedule
*  Working conditions
E.  Analyze the economic factors that impact employment opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
*  Competition
*  Geographic location
*  Global influences
*  Job growth
*  Job openings
*  Labor supply
*  Potential advancement
*  Potential earnings
*  Salaries/benefits
*  Unemployment
E.  Justify the selection of a career.
F.  Explore how people prepare for careers. F.  Investigate people's rationale for making career choices. F.  Analyze the relationship of school subjects, extracurricular activities and community experiences to career preparation. F.  Analyze the relationship between career choices and career preparation opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
*  Associate degree
*  Baccalaureate degree
*  Certificate/licensure
*  Entrepreneurship
*  Immediate part/full    time employment
*  Industry training
*  Military training
*  Professional degree
*  Registered    apprenticeship
*  Tech Prep
*  Vocational    rehabilitation centers
G.  Explain why education and training plans are important to careers. G.  Identify the components of a career plan, such as, but not limited to:
*  Beginnings of career    portfolio
*  Career goals
*  Individual interests    and abilities
*  Training/education    requirements and costs
G.  Create an individualized career plan including, such as, but not limited to:
*  Assessment and    continued development    of career portfolio
*  Career goals
*  Cluster/pathway    opportunities
*  Individual interests    and abilities
*  Training/education    requirements and    financing
G.  Assess the implementation of the individualized career plan through the ongoing development of the career portfolio.
H.  Explain how workers in their careers use what is learned in the classroom. H.  Connect personal interests and abilities and academic strengths to personal career options. H.  Choose personal electives and extra curricular activities based upon personal career interests, abilities and academic strengths. H.  Review personal high school plan against current personal career goals and select postsecondary opportunities based upon personal career interests.
13.2. Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)
13.2.3. GRADE 313.2.5. GRADE 513.2.8. GRADE 813.2.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.  Identify appropriate speaking and listening techniques used in conversation. A.  Apply appropriate speaking and listening techniques used in conversation. A.  Identify effective speaking and listening skills used in a job interview. A.  Apply effective speaking and listening skills used in a job interview.
B.  Discuss resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
*  Internet
*  Magazines
*  Newspapers
B.  Identify and review resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
*  Internet
*  Magazines
*  Newspapers
B.  Evaluate resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
*  CareerLinks
*  Internet (i.e. O*NET)
*  Networking
*  Newspapers
*  Professional    associations
*  Resource books (that is    Occupational Outlook    Handbook, PA Career    Guide)
B.  Apply research skills in searching for a job.
*  CareerLinks
*  Internet (i.e. O*NET)
*  Networking
*  Newspapers
*  Professional    associations
*  Resource books (that is    Occupational Outlook    Handbook, PA Career    Guide)
C.  Compose a personal letter. C.  Compose and compare a business and a personal letter. C.  Prepare a draft of career acquisition documents, such as, but not limited to:
*  Job application
*  Letter of appreciation    following an interview
*  Letter of introduction
*  Request for letter of    recommendation
*  Resume
C.  Develop and assemble, for career portfolio placement, career acquisition documents, such as, but not limited to:
*  Job application
*  Letter of appreciation    following an interview
*  Letter of introduction
*  Postsecondary    education/training    applications
*  Request for letter of    recommendation
*  Resume
D.  Identify the importance of developing a plan for the future. D.  Identify individualized career portfolio components, such as, but not limited to:
*  Achievements
*  Awards/recognitions
*  Career exploration    results
*  Career plans
*  Community service    involvement/projects
*  Interests/hobbies
*  Personal career goals
*  Selected school work
*  Self inventories
D.  Develop an individualized career portfolio including components, such as, but not limited to:
*  Achievements
*  Awards/recognitions
*  Career exploration    results
*  Career plans
*  Community service    involvement/projects
*  Interests/hobbies
*  Personal career goals
*  Selected school work
*  Self inventories
D.  Analyze, revise and apply an individualized career portfolio to chosen career path.
E.  Discuss the importance of the essential workplace skills, such as, but not limited to:
*  Dependability
*  Health/safety
*  Team building
*  Technology
E.  Apply to daily activities, the essential workplace skills, such as, but not limited to:
*  Commitment
*  Communication
*  Dependability
*  Health/safety
*  Personal initiative
*  Scheduling/time    management
*  Team building
*  Technical literacy
*  Technology
E.  Explain, in the career acquisition process, the importance of the essential workplace skills/knowledge, such as, but not limited to:
*  Commitment
*  Communication
*  Dependability
*  Health/safety
*  Laws and regulations    (that is Americans    With Disabilities Act,    child labor laws, Fair    Labor Standards Act,    OSHA, Material Safety    Data Sheets)
*  Personal initiative
*  Self-advocacy
*  Scheduling/time    management
*  Team building
*  Technical literacy
*  Technology
E.  Demonstrate, in the career acquisition process, the application of essential workplace skills/knowledge, such as, but not limited to:
*  Commitment
*  Communication
*  Dependability
*  Health/safety
*  Laws and regulations    (that is Americans    With Disabilities Act,    child labor laws, Fair    Labor Standards Act,    OSHA, Material Safety    Data Sheets)
*  Personal initiative
*  Self-advocacy
*  Scheduling/time    management
*  Team building
*  Technical literacy
*  Technology
13.3. Career Retention and Advancement
13.3.3. GRADE 313.3.5. GRADE 513.3.8. GRADE 813.3.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.  Identify attitudes and work habits that contribute to success at home and school. A.  Explain how student attitudes and work habits transfer from the home and school to the workplace. A.  Determine attitudes and work habits that support career retention and advancement. A.  Evaluate personal attitudes and work habits that support career retention and advancement.
B.  Identify how to cooperate at both home and school. B.  Explain the importance of working cooperatively with others at both home and school to complete a task. B.  Analyze the role of each participant's contribution in a team setting. B.  Evaluate team member roles to describe and illustrate active listening techniques:
*  Clarifying
*  Encouraging
*  Reflecting
*  Restating
*  Summarizing
C.  Explain effective group interaction terms, such as, but not limited to:
*  Compliment
*  Cooperate
*  Encourage
*  Participate
C.  Identify effective group interaction strategies, such as, but not limited to:
*  Building consensus
*  Communicating    effectively
*  Establishing ground    rules
*  Listening to others
C.  Explain and demonstrate conflict resolution skills:
*  Constructive criticism
*  Group dynamics
*  Managing/leadership
*  Mediation
*  Negotiation
*  Problem solving
C.  Evaluate conflict resolution skills as they relate to the workplace:
*  Constructive criticism
*  Group dynamics
*  Managing/leadership
*  Mediation
*  Negotiation
*  Problem solving
D.  Explain how money is used. D.  Explain budgeting. D.  Analyze budgets and pay statements, such as, but not limited to:
*  Charitable    contributions
*  Expenses
*  Gross pay
*  Net pay
*  Other income
*  Savings
*  Taxes
D.  Develop a personal budget based on career choice, such as, but not limited to:
*  Charitable    contributions
*  Fixed/variable expenses
*  Gross pay
*  Net pay
*  Other income
*  Savings
*  Taxes
E.  Discuss how time is used at both home and school. E.  Develop a personal schedule based on activities and responsibilities at both home and school. E.  Identify and apply time management strategies as they relate to both personal and work situations. E.  Evaluate time management strategies and their application to both personal and work situations.
F.  Identify the changes in family and friend's roles at home, at school and in the community. F.  Describe the impact of role changes at home, school, and at work, and how the role changes impact career advancement and retention. F.  Identify characteristics of the changing workplace including Americans With Disabilities Act accommodations, and explain their impact on jobs and employment. F.  Evaluate strategies for career retention and advancement in response to the changing global workplace.
G.  Define and describe the importance of lifelong learning. G.  Describe how personal interests and abilities impact lifelong learning. G.  Identify formal and informal lifelong learning opportunities that support career retention and advancement. G.  Evaluate the impact of lifelong learning on career retention and advancement.
13.4. Entrepreneurship
13.4.3. GRADE 313.4.5. GRADE 513.4.8. GRADE 813.4.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania's public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.  Define entrepreneurship. A.  Identify the risks and rewards of entrepreneurship. A.  Compare and contrast entrepreneurship to traditional employment, such as, but not limited to:
*  Benefits
*  Job security
*  Operating costs
*  Wages
A.  Analyze entrepreneurship as it relates to personal career goals and corporate opportunities.
B.  Describe the character traits of successful entrepreneurs, such as, but not limited to:
*  Adaptability
*  Creative thinking
*  Ethical behavior
*  Leadership
*  Positive attitude
*  Risk-taking
B.  Discuss the entrepreneurial character traits of historical or contemporary entrepreneurs. B.  Evaluate how entrepreneurial character traits influence career opportunities. B.  Analyze entrepreneurship as it relates to personal character traits.
C.  Describe age-appropriate entrepreneurial opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
*  Bake sale
*  Crafts
*  Lemonade stand
*  Pet care
C.  Discuss the steps entrepreneurs take to bring their goods or services to market, such as, but not limited to:
*  Marketing
*  Production
*  Research and    development
*  Selection of goods and    services
C.  Identify and describe the basic components of a business plan, such as, but not limited to:
*  Business idea
*  Competitive analysis
*  Daily operations
*  Finances/budget
*  Marketing
*  Productive resources    (human, capital,    natural)
*  Sales forecasting
C.  Develop a business plan for an entrepreneurial concept of personal interest and identify available resources, such as, but not limited to:
*  Community based    organizations (that is    chambers of commerce,    trade/technical    associations, Industrial    Resource Centers)
*  Financial institutions
*  School-based career    centers
*  Small Business    Administration services    (that is SCORE, Small    Business Development    Centers, Entrepre-
   neurial Development    Centers)
*  Venture capital

Academic Standards for Career Education and Work

XXXIX.  GLOSSARY

Americans With Disabilities Act
(Pub. L. No. 101-336):
The Americans With Disabilities Act is a Federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination and for ensuring equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, state and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation and requiring the establishment of TDD/telephone relay services.
Aptitudes: Capacity to learn and understand.
Associate degree: A postsecondary degree typically earned within a 2-year time frame.
Baccalaureate degree: A postsecondary degree, also known as a bachelor's degree, typically earned within a 4-year time frame from a college or university.
Benefits: Something of value that an employee receives in addition to a wage or salary. Examples include health and life insurance, vacation leave, retirement plans, and the like.
Budget: A financial plan that summarizes anticipated income and expenditures over a period of time.
Business plan: A prepared document detailing the past, present and future of an organization.
Career and technical centers: Schools that educate secondary students and adults through academic instruction, job preparation and acquisition of occupational skills leading to credentials or employment, or both, in specific industries. The centers also provide opportunities for transition to postsecondary education and continuing education.
Career cluster: A grouping of related occupations, which share similar skill sets.
Career days: Special events that allow students to meet with employers, career development specialists, community-based organization representatives and postsecondary educators. Events are designed to encourage students to gain information about careers and job opportunities.
Career plan: A document developed by the student that identifies a series of educational studies and experiences to prepare them for postsecondary education or work, or both, in a selected career cluster or area.
Career portfolio: An ongoing, individualized collection of materials (electronic or hard copy) that documents a student's educational performance, career exploration and employment experiences over time. While there is no standard format that a career portfolio must take, it typically includes a range of work, containing assignments by the teacher/counselor and selections by the student. It serves as a guide for the student to transition to postsecondary education or the workplace, or both.
Career retention and advancement: Career retention is the process of keeping a job. Career advancement is the process of performing the necessary requirements to progress in a career.
CareerLinks: A cooperative system that provides one-stop delivery of career services to job seekers, employers and other interested individuals.
Certificate/licensure: A document, issued by associations, employers, educational institutions, government, and the like, confirming that one has fulfilled the requirements and is able to perform to a specified level of proficiency within a career field.
Child labor laws: Legislation governing the employment of children under the age of 18.
Competitive analysis: A tool that allows a business to identify its competitors and evaluate their respective strengths and weaknesses.
Cooperative education: A structured method of instruction whereby students alternate or coordinate their high school studies with a job in a field related to their academic or career objectives.
Entrepreneurs: Individuals who engage in the process of organizing, managing and assuming the risk of a business or enterprise.
Entrepreneurship: The process of organizing, managing and assuming the risks of a business or enterprise.
Fair Labor Standards Act: A Federal law that defines overtime and wage requirements (26 U.S.C.A. §§ 201--219).
Fixed/variable expenses: Fixed expenses are regular in their timing and amount, and include things such as rent, mortgage, car payment and insurance. Variable expenses are irregular in their timing and amount, and include such things as food, clothing, home and car maintenance, entertainment and gifts.
Global influences: Political and cultural changes, which impact the world and its economy.
Gross pay: The amount earned before deductions, such as taxes, insurance and retirement/pension plan.
Industrial Resource Centers: Nonprofit corporations, which provide assistance to improve the competitive position of small-to-medium sized manufacturers.
Internship: A work experience with an employer for a specified period of time to learn about a particular industry or occupation, which may or may not include financial compensation. The workplace activities may include special projects, a sample of tasks from different jobs or tasks from a single occupation.
Job shadowing: Typically as part of career exploration activities in late middle and early high school, a student follows an employee for 1 or more days to learn about a particular occupation or industry. Job shadowing is intended to help students explore a range of career objectives and to possibly select a career pathway.
Labor supply: The number of persons either working or unemployed and actively seeking work.
Marketing: The process or technique of promoting, selling and distributing a product or service.
Material Safety Data Sheets: Federally mandated listings of all hazardous materials that will impact the health and safety of the workers and that are required to be posted in the workplace.
Mediation: Third-party intervention between conflicting parties to promote reconciliation, settlement or compromise.
Net pay: The amount remaining after deductions, such as taxes, insurance and retirement/pension plan.
Networking: The act of exchanging information, contacts and services.
Nontraditional careers: Fields of work for which individuals from one gender comprise less than 25% of the individuals employed in each occupation or field of work.
O*NET: Occupational Information Network--is a free public access online web-based system provided by the United States Department of Labor, which includes comprehensive up-to-date occupational information including skills, knowledge, abilities and tasks for more than 950 occupations.
Operating costs: The funds necessary to operate a business, not including the cost of goods sold. This is also referred to as overhead.
OSHA: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration--A National agency with representatives in each state who monitor health and safety issues in the workplace.
Professional associations: Organizations of people having common interests.
Professional degree: A title conferred on students by a college, university or professional school upon completion of a program of study.
Registered apprenticeship: A formal program registered with the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training and with the Pennsylvania Apprenticeship Council. This program must follow strict guidelines as to the types of training and amount of training time an apprentice receives and leads directly into occupations requiring the training for entry.
Resume: A summary of one's personal qualifications, education/training and employment experience.
Salaries/benefits: Financial compensation paid regularly for services (See ''benefits'' for definition).
Sales forecasting: Predicting the number of services or units likely to be sold over a specified period of time.
School-based career centers: Specialized areas in schools equipped with resources and materials used to research postsecondary and occupational opportunities.
School-based enterprise: The production of goods or services as part of a school program.
SCORE: Service Corps of Retired Executives--A Small Business Administration Federally-sponsored program to assist small-to-medium sized companies.
Self inventories: Evaluations of an individual's strengths, weaknesses and interests, as it relates to career planning.
Tech Prep: The name given to programs that offer at least 4 years of sequential course work at the secondary and postsecondary levels to prepare students for technical careers. The curricula are designed to build student competency in academic subjects, as well as to provide broad technical preparation in a career area.
Technical literacy: The ability of individuals to use existing and emerging technologies, equipment, language, materials and manuals to participate intelligently in performing tasks related to everyday life, school or job.
Time management strategies: Scheduling techniques used to effectively and efficiently direct or control activities.
Traditional careers: Fields of work for which individuals from one gender comprise more than 25% of the individuals employed in each occupation or field of work.
Unemployment: Measurement of the number of people who are not working and who are actively seeking work.
Venture capital: Public or private funds invested in a potentially profitable business enterprise despite risk of loss.
Vocational rehabilitation centers: Educational facilities that provide life skills and occupational training services for individuals with special needs.
Wages: Payments of money for labor or services according to contract and on an hourly, daily or piecework basis.
Web-based training: Instruction that is available online.
Work habits: Acquired behaviors that individuals regularly perform in completing tasks related to chores, school or job.
Working conditions: The environment in which an individual is employed.
[Pa.B. Doc. No. 06-1267. Filed for public inspection July 7, 2006, 9:00 a.m.]



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