[34 Pa.B. 4712]
[Continued from previous Web Page]
§ 212.6. Removal of traffic hazards.
(a) Interfering signs, lights or markings. The Secretary and local authorities, under their respective jurisdictions, have the authority to cause the removal of all colored or flashing lighted signs or other lights, signs or markings so located as to interfere with traffic or to be confused with or to obstruct the view or effectiveness of traffic-control devices.
(b) Trees, plants, shrubs or other obstructions. The Department on State-designated highways, and local authorities on any highway within their boundaries, may require a property owner to remove or trim a tree, plant, shrub or other obstruction or part thereof which constitutes a traffic hazard. The following are examples of traffic hazards:
(1) The obstruction restricts the stopping sight distance for drivers of through vehicles or the available corner sight distance for drivers entering from side roads or driveways to distances less than the appropriate minimum stopping sight distance or minimum corner sight distance values.
(2) The obstruction critically restricts the sight distance to a traffic-control device.
(3) Vehicle crash records indicate that a crash has involved the obstruction or that the obstruction contributed to one or more of the vehicle crashes.
§ 212.7. Signs and banners across or within the legal limits of a State-designated highway.
(a) Prohibition. It is unlawful to place any sign, marking or banner containing advertising matter of any kind on, across or within the right-of-way of any State-designated highway without the written consent of the Department.
(b) Abatement. A sign, marking or banner containing advertising matter placed without the written consent of the Department will be declared to be a public nuisance and may be removed by the Department with or without notice to the persons responsible for the placing of the sign, marking or banner containing advertising matter.
§ 212.8. Use, test, approval and sale of traffic-control devices.
(a) Statutory requirements. Under 75 Pa.C.S. § 6127 (relating to dealing in nonconforming traffic-control devices), it is unlawful for a person to manufacture, sell, offer for sale or lease for use on the highway, any traffic-control device unless it has been approved and is in accordance with this title.
(b) Devices requiring Department approval. Department approval is required prior to the sale or use of the following types of traffic-control devices on any highway:
(1) Delineation devices, including flexible delineator posts, guide rail and barrier-mounted delineators and raised pavement markers.
(2) Pavement marking materials including paint, epoxy, polyesters, methyl methacrylate, thermoplastic, preformed tapes and glass beads.
(3) Retroreflective sheeting materials used for traffic-control devices.
(4) Traffic signal equipment, including the following:
(i) Controller units.
(ii) Signal heads--lane-use traffic-control, pedestrian, and vehicle.
(iii) Detectors--pedestrian and vehicle.
(iv) Load switches.
(v) Flasher units.
(vi) Time clocks.
(viii) Preemption and priority control equipment.
(ix) Electrically-powered signs--variable speed limit signs, blank-out signs and internally illuminated signs, including School Speed Limit Signs.
(x) Portable traffic-control signals.
(xi) Local intersection coordinating units.
(xii) Dimming devices.
(xiii) In-roadway warning lights.
(xiv) Auxiliary devices and systems.
(5) Traffic signs and the associated breakaway sign supports.
(6) Work zone traffic-control devices, including the following:
(i) Arrow panels.
(iii) Citizen band traffic alert radios.
(v) Crash cushions.
(vii) Portable changeable message signs.
(viii) Portable traffic sign supports.
(ix) Speed display signs, as used to inform motorists of the speed of their vehicles.
(x) Stop/slow paddles.
(xi) Temporary pavement marking tapes.
(xii) Temporary traffic barrier.
(xiii) Tubular markers.
(xiv) Variable speed limit signs.
(xv) Vertical panels.
(xvi) Warning lights.
(7) Yield to pedestrian channelizing devices, which are designed for placement between lanes of traffic to remind motorists to yield to pedestrians in crosswalks.
(c) Approval procedure. A manufacturer or person desiring approval for the sale, use or lease of one or more of the devices listed in subsection (b) shall contact the Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering.
(d) Listing of approved traffic-control devices. Approved traffic-control devices will be listed in the Department's Approved Construction Materials (Department Publication 35), available from the Department's Sales Store or through the Department's website.
§ 212.9. Traffic calming.
(a) General policy. The Department on State-designated highways, and local authorities on any highway within their boundaries, may implement traffic calming measures in conformance with Pennsylvania's Traffic Calming Handbook (Department Publication 383).
(b) Department approval. Local authorities shall obtain approval of the Department prior to implementing a traffic calming measure on a State-designated highway, except when the Department's handbook provides otherwise or when the Department has entered into an agreement with local authorities that provides otherwise.
§ 212.10. Requests for changes, interpretations or permission to experiment.
A municipality or other agency may submit a request to the Department for a change or an interpretation of the provisions of this chapter, or for approval to use an alternate device or to experiment with a device in a way not provided for in this chapter.
(1) The request must be submitted in writing to the Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering.
(2) The request must include sufficient information to allow the Department to make a ruling, or to forward the request to the Federal Highway Administration as may be necessary, in accordance with Section 1A.10 of the MUTCD (relating to interpretations, experimentation, changes and interim approvals).
(3) The type of information to be compiled during any experiment must be identified in the request, and the collection of any data and the development of any follow-up report will be a conditional part of the request.
§ 212.11. Metric measurements.
(a) General policy. The following conversion factors may be used for the design and placement of traffic-control devices as included in this chapter:
(1) One inch equals 25 millimeters.
(2) One foot equals 0.30 meter.
(3) One mile equals 1.6 kilometers.
(b) Metric sign messages. Unless authorized in writing by the Secretary, sign messages on regulatory, warning and guide signs, except for auxiliary signs used for educational purposes, may not display metric units of measurement.
§ 212.12. Department publications.
The Department will publish or make available documents to assist those persons responsible for conducting engineering and traffic studies; manufacturing traffic signs and other traffic-control devices; erecting, maintaining and operating traffic-control devices; and maintaining traffic in work zones. The following documents will be available from the Department's Sales Store:
(1) Approved Construction Materials (Department Publication 35) which contains listings of approved suppliers of specific materials.
(2) Official Traffic-Control Devices (Department Publication 212) which contains this chapter, and an appendix containing additional guidance related to elements of appropriate engineering and traffic studies and the provisions of this chapter.
(3) Pennsylvania Handbook of Approved Signs (Department Publication 236M) which contains the design and application details of official traffic signs.
(4) Signing and Marking Standards, TC-8700 Series (Department Publication 111M) which contains the traffic standards that provide detailed guidance for sign legends, expressway and freeway signs, sign spacing and location criteria and sign posts. The publication also includes detailed drawings of pavement marking lines and symbols, and the placement of delineation devices at on-ramps, off-ramps and lane drops.
(5) Traffic Signal Design Handbook (Department Publication 149M) which contains information for use in the design and operation of a traffic signal installation.
(6) Traffic Signal Standard Drawings, TC-8800 Series (Department Publication 148M) which contains detailed guidance for the construction of traffic signals, controller assemblies, traffic signal supports, electrical distribution, signal heads and detectors.
(7) Temporary Traffic-Control Guide (Department Publication 213) which provides additional guidance and suggested temporary traffic-control plans for maintaining traffic through highway construction, maintenance and utility work zones to supplement various situations not included in the MUTCD.
Subchapter B. SIGNS
212.101. Official signs. 212.102. Sign manufacturers. 212.103. Sign size. 212.104. Retroreflectorization. 212.105. Sign posts and mountings. 212.106. Additional warrants for Stop Signs (R1-1) and Yield Signs (R1-2). 212.107. Except Right Turn Sign (R1-1-1). 212.108. Speed limits. 212.109. Bridge speed limits. 212.110. Hazardous grade speed limits. 212.111. Turn restriction warrants. 212.112. Signs to prohibit passing. 212.113. One-way streets. 212.114. Stopping, standing and parking restrictions. 212.115. Posting of private parking lots. 212.116. No Turn on Red Sign (R10-11 sign series). 212.117. Weight, size and load restrictions. 212.118. Street name signs. 212.119. Signing of named highways. 212.120. General motorist service signs. 212.121. Specific service signs. 212.122. Recreational and cultural interest area signs. 212.123. Tourist-oriented directional signs.
§ 212.101. Official signs.
(a) Approved signs. Official traffic signs are identified in the Pennsylvania Handbook of Approved Signs (Department Publication 236M) which includes sign standards that show the shape, color, dimensions, legends, application and placement of official signs. When sign messages are required other than those provided for in the Pennsylvania Handbook of Approved Signs, the Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering may authorize new sign standards. When approved by the Secretary, through the Chief, Traffic Engineering and Operations Division, these signs shall also be regarded as official signs.
(b) Existing nonstandard signs. Official signs must replace existing signs of nonstandard design or application as rapidly as is economically feasible.
(c) Unacceptable variations. Variations in the proportion of symbols, stroke width and height of letters, width of borders or layout of word or symbol messages will be sufficient cause for the Secretary to order the removal or replacement of a sign, but will not be a defense in prosecution for violation of any mandatory traffic control provided by the sign.
§ 212.102. Sign manufacturers.
Only signs manufactured by the Department or a Department-approved sign manufacturer must be used on any highway. Commercial or municipal sign manufacturers who wish to obtain Department approval to manufacture signs shall request an application from the Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering.
§ 212.103. Sign size.
Signs smaller than the minimum size or larger than the largest size specified on the sign standards in the Pennsylvania Handbook of Approved Signs (Department Publication 236M) are not permitted without written approval from the Department.
§ 212.104. Retroreflectorization.
Retroreflective sheeting or other approved retroreflective materials must be used on all signs that do not have sign illumination, unless the sign standard as included in the Pennsylvania Handbook of Approved Signs (Department Publication 236M) indicates that the sign does not need to be retroreflective. Type III or higher type retroreflective sheeting is encouraged to improve nighttime visibility of signs, especially for older drivers.
§ 212.105. Sign posts and mountings.
Unless physically protected by guide rail or a barrier, or installed beyond the clear zone as defined in the Department's Design Manual, Part 2 (Department Publication 13M), all sign posts shall be of a Department-approved breakaway design as listed in the Approved Construction Materials (Department Publication 35), and in accordance with the Signing and Marking Standards, TC-8700 Series (Department Publication 111M).
§ 212.106. Additional warrants for Stop Signs (R1-1) and Yield Signs (R1-2).
(a) Through highways. The Department and local authorities may designate highways as through highways to permit more continuous movement and less delay to the major flow of traffic.
(1) Stop Signs (R1-1) or Yield Signs (R1-2) may be installed at all approaches to the through highway to provide preferential right-of-way at intersections.
(2) The designation of a highway as a through highway does not prevent modification of the right-of-way assignment at intersections of the through highway.
(3) The justification for the modification at a particular intersection will be based on the warrants in the MUTCD and the additional warrants in subsection (b), (c) or (d).
(b) Stop Signs (R1-1) at intersections. In addition to the warrants for stop signs in the MUTCD (relating to stop sign applications), a Stop Sign (R1-1) may be installed on a channelized right-turn roadway at a signalized intersection where the traffic-control signals are not readily visible, and the right-turn roadway does not have separate signals, and a Yield Sign (R1-2) is not appropriate.
(c) Multiway stop applications. In addition to the criteria and options warranting multiway stop applications in the MUTCD, the following apply:
(1) The five or more reported crashes in a 12-month period for Warrant B may include both reportable crashes, and nonreportable crashes that are documented in the police files, that occurred during a 12-month period during the most recent 3 years of available crash data.
(2) Multiway stop applications may not be used because of limited available corner sight distance unless there is no practical method of improving the sight distance or reducing the speed limit to satisfy the minimum corner sight distance values.
(d) Stop and yield control at locations other than intersections.
(1) One-lane bridges and underpasses. Stop Signs (R1-1) are warranted in advance of a one-lane bridge or underpass when roadway geometry is such that drivers cannot see an approaching vehicle in sufficient time for both vehicles to stop prior to entering the bridge or underpass. If sight distance is not a problem, a Yield Sign (R1-2) with the supplemental To Oncoming Traffic Sign (R1-2a) may be installed at both ends of a one-lane bridge or underpass.
(2) Crossings. Stop Signs (R1-1) may be installed on highways on a temporary basis at officially designated crossings such as construction haul roads. These Stop Signs (R1-1) should only be visible and in effect during the time periods the crossing is being used and should be supplemented with a flashing red light for added visibility.
(3) Private roads and driveways. Stop Signs (R1-1) or Yield Signs (R1-2) may be installed to control traffic exiting from a private road or driveway onto a highway or to control traffic on the highway at a private road or driveway if the warrants applied at highway intersections are satisfied.
(4) Truck pulloffs on hazardous grades. A Stop Sign (R1-1) may be installed within an officially designated truck pull-off area in advance of a hazardous grade indicating the location that trucks are to stop within the pulloff.
(5) Temporary traffic control. Stop Signs (R1-1) may be installed at both ends of short one-lane construction, maintenance or utility operation to provide self-regulating traffic control providing the one-lane section excluding the tapers is less than 250 feet, the ADT is less than 1,500, and the sight distance is sufficient.
§ 212.107. Except Right Turn Sign (R1-1-1).
When a major traffic movement at an intersection is a right turn, the Except Right Turn Sign (R1-1-1) may be placed below the Stop Sign (R1-1) on that approach to minimize the total delay at the intersection. When this sign is used, Stop Signs (R1-1) are required on all other intersection approaches except for the approach with a corresponding left-turn movement.
§ 212.108. Speed limits.
(a) General. This section applies to maximum speed limits established according to 75 Pa.C.S. §§ 3362 and 3363 (relating to maximum speed limits; and alteration of maximum limits).
(b) Engineering and traffic studies. Speed limits established in accordance with 75 Pa.C.S. § 3363 may be established in multiples of 5 miles per hour up to the maximum lawful speed. The speed limit should be within 5 miles per hour of the average 85th percentile speed or the safe-running speed on the section of highway, except the speed limit may be reduced up to 10 miles per hour below either of these values if one or more of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) A major portion of the highway has insufficient stopping sight distance if traveling at the 85th percentile speed or the safe-running speed.
(2) The available corner sight distance on a number of side roads is less than the necessary stopping sight distance values for through vehicles.
(3) The majority of crashes are related to excessive speed and the crash rate during a minimum 12-month period is greater than the applicable rate in the most recent high-crash rate or high-crash severity rate table included in the appendix of Official Traffic-Control Devices (Department Publication 212). Crashes related to excessive speed include those crashes with causation factors of driving too fast for conditions, turning without clearance or failing to yield right-of-way.
(c) Variable speed limits. To improve safety, speed limits may be changed as a function of traffic speeds or densities, weather or roadway conditions or other factors.
(d) Special speed limits.
(1) Within a rest area or welcome center, a 25 mile per hour speed limit may be established without the need for an engineering and traffic study if pedestrians walk across the access roadways between the parking lot and the rest facilities.
(2) Within a toll plaza or a truck weight station, an appropriate speed limit may be established without an engineering and traffic study by the authorities in charge to enforce the safety of the operations or to protect the scales.
(e) Posting of speed limits. A Speed Limit Sign (R2-1) or variable speed limit sign showing the maximum speed limit shall be placed on the right side of the highway at the beginning of each numerical change in the speed limit, but an additional sign may also be installed on the left side of the highway. If the new speed limit begins at an intersection, the first sign should be installed within 200 feet beyond the intersection. The placement of this sign must satisfy both the requirement to post the beginning of the new speed limit and the requirement to post the end of the previous speed limit. Additional requirements for posting are as follows:
(1) Speed limits of 50 miles per hour or less must be posted as follows:
(i) A Reduced Speed (____) Ahead Sign (R2-5), or a Speed Reduction Sign (W3-5 or W3-5a), shall be placed on the right side of the highway 500 to 1,000 feet before the beginning of every speed reduction unless one of the following applies:
(A) The speed reduction is 10 miles per hour or less.
(B) The speed reduction begins at an intersection and all traffic entering the roadway with the speed reduction has to either stop at a Stop Sign (R1-1) or make a turn.
(C) The new speed limit is posted on variable speed limit signs.
(ii) Speed Limit Signs (R2-1) or a variable speed limit sign showing the maximum speed must be placed on the right side of the highway at the beginning of the speed limit and at intervals not greater than 1/2 mile throughout the area with the speed limit.
(iii) The end of a speed limit is typically identified by the placement of a sign indicating a new speed limit, but the End Plaque (R2-10) may be placed above a Speed Limit Sign (R2-1) at the end of the zone if the appropriate speed limit is not known on the following section of roadway.
(2) On freeways, a Speed Limit Sign (R2-1) must be installed after each interchange unless insufficient space exists for the signs.
§ 212.109. Bridge speed limits.
(a) Establishment. A bridge speed limit must be established under 75 Pa.C.S. § 3365(a) (relating to special speed limitations) if an engineering investigation by a structural engineer establishes the need to reduce the vibration and impact of vehicles due to a structural condition of the bridge or elevated structure.
(b) Posting. An established bridge speed limit must be posted similar to other speed limits in § 212.108(e) (relating to speed limits), except that a Bridge Sign (R12-1-2) must be mounted directly above each Speed Limit Sign (R2-1) and Reduced Speed (____) Ahead Sign (R2-5). The sign indicating the beginning of the bridge speed limit should be installed within 50 feet of the beginning of the structure. The end of the bridge or elevated structure must be the end of the bridge speed limit.
§ 212.110. Hazardous grade speed limits.
(a) Establishment. A hazardous grade speed limit may be established under 75 Pa.C.S. § 3365(c) (relating to special speed limitations) if an engineering and traffic study establishes the need for all vehicles or vehicles having a gross weight in excess of a designated weight to be limited to a maximum speed on a downgrade.
(1) The designated weight should be 26,000 pounds unless the engineering and traffic study determines that a different weight should be used.
(2) When a hazardous-grade speed limit is established, it should be consistent with the speed that similar vehicles can climb the hill or other Department-approved methodology, except that a hazardous-grade speed limit should not be greater than the lowest advisory speed or legal speed limit either on the hill or at the base of the hill.
(3) A hazardous-grade speed limit may be established when one or more of the following conditions exist:
(i) The length of grade exceeds the value set forth in the following table:
Length of Grade
Average Grade (percent) Condition A* Condition B** -3 20,000 -- -4 8,000 16,000 -5 5,000 10,000 -6 3,000 6,000 -7 2,000 4,000 -8 1,800 3,600 -10 1,500 3,000 -12 1,250 2,500 -15 1,000 2,000
* Condition A applies if vehicles are required to stop or reduce speed at or before the bottom of the hill or if there is an urbanized area at the base of the hill.
** Condition B pertains to all other locations.
(ii) A crash has occurred on the downgrade that can be attributed to the speed of a vehicle having a gross weight in excess of the designated weight.
(iii) A verified report has been received during the past 3 years of an operator losing control of a vehicle on the grade, and the vehicle is a type having a gross weight in excess of the designated weight.
(b) Posting. A hazardous grade speed limit must be posted with traffic-control devices as follows:
(1) A Reduced Speed (____) Ahead Sign (R2-5), advising of the maximum hazardous grade speed limit, with a Truck Marker (M4-4), or other marker as applicable, mounted directly above the Reduced Speed (____) Ahead Sign (R2-5), must be placed on the right side of the highway at a distance of 500 to 1,000 feet before the hazardous grade speed limit, except that this advance sign is not required if the hazardous grade speed limit begins at a vehicle pull-off where all applicable vehicles are required to stop.
(2) A Trucks Over (____) Lbs. Speed Sign (R2-2-1), or other sign as applicable, must be erected at the beginning of the hazardous grade speed zone and at intervals not greater than 1/4 mile throughout the zone.
(3) A Trucks Over (____) Lbs. Speed Sign (R2-2-1), or other sign as applicable, with an End Sign (R2-10) mounted above the Trucks Over (____) Lbs. Speed Sign (R2-2-1) or other sign, must be installed at the end of the hazardous grade speed limit.
§ 212.111. Turn restriction warrants.
A straight-through or turning movement may be restricted if the movement can be made at an alternate location, and if one or more of the following conditions are present:
(1) A review of vehicle crashes shows that ten crashes have occurred during the previous 3 years, or five crashes have occurred during any 12-month period in the previous 3 years that can be attributed to vehicles making or attempting to make the movement.
(2) When a capacity analysis or field review of the intersection indicates that turning or crossing vehicles are causing unreasonable delays or creating a potential crash situation for through vehicles.
(3) When a field review of the intersection indicates that significant conflicts occur between vehicles making or attempting to make a particular movement and other vehicular or pedestrian movements.
(4) When a field review of the intersection indicates that a turn or straight-through movement delays the platoon of vehicles through a progressive signal system.
(5) When a field review of the intersection indicates that the geometric design or the available corner sight distance does not adequately provide for the movement or the movement frequently cannot be safely executed.
(6) A study shows that the turning movement is frequently being made by through traffic onto a residential street to avoid downstream congestion.
§ 212.112. Signs to prohibit passing.
The No Passing Zone Pennant (W14-3) is the primary sign to identify the beginning of a no-passing zone on a two-lane highway and shall be installed on the left side of the road. The Do Not Pass Sign (R4-1) may be installed on the right side of the roadway to supplement the No Passing Zone Pennant Sign (W14-3). The Pass With Care Sign (R4-2) may be installed at the end of the no-passing zone. Warrants for no-passing zones are included in § 212.202 (relating to no-passing zones).
§ 212.113. One-way streets.
A one-way street may be established if the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The traffic flow can be accommodated in both directions. Whenever possible, an adjacent parallel street should be used to form a one-way couplet.
(2) The street has a reasonable number of intersections for entrance to or exit from the one-way street or one-way system.
(3) The roadways at the terminal points of the one-way street provide satisfactory transitions to and from the two-way operation.
(4) There will be a reduction of intersection delays.
(5) Existing bus routes can be satisfactorily accommodated.
(6) Emergency vehicles can reasonably and expeditiously reach their destinations.
§ 212.114. Stopping, standing and parking restrictions.
(a) General. Stopping, standing or parking may be restricted along the curb or edge of a roadway when one or more of the following conditions exist:
(1) The distance between the center of the center line pavement markings (or the center of the roadway if center line pavement markings are not present) and the curb or edge of roadway is less than 19 feet on major arterial highways, or less than 18 feet on other roadways.
(2) The street width is such that, if vehicles are parked along one or both curb faces or edges of the roadway, two vehicles cannot move abreast of one another in the same or the opposite direction without one yielding to allow the other vehicle to pass.
(3) A capacity analysis indicates that parking should be removed at all times or during certain hours to accommodate the traffic volume.
(4) At an intersection, the available corner sight distance for a driver on the minor road is less than the necessary minimum stopping sight distance value for the driver on a through roadway.
(5) An analysis of vehicle crashes indicates that at least three crashes during the previous 3-year period have been directly or indirectly attributed to one of the following primary causes:
(i) Vehicles parking on the roadway.
(ii) Vehicles entering or leaving the parked position.
(iii) Drivers or passengers getting out of parked vehicles on the street side.
(iv) Reduced sight distance due to the parked vehicles.
(6) The area is designated as an official bus stop or as a loading and unloading zone.
(7) The area is adjacent to or opposite of a fire station driveway or any other type driveway or intersection where turning maneuvers would be restricted if parking were present.
(8) The width of the shoulder is not sufficient to allow a vehicle or its load to park completely off the roadway.
(9) Along roadways having three or more lanes and speed limits of 40 miles per hour or above, parking may be restricted to allow vehicles to use the berm or shoulder as a clear recovery area.
(b) Angle parking. As defined in § 212.1 (relating to definitions), angle parking will only be authorized as follows:
(1) New angle parking may be established only along streets where the following criteria are satisfied:
(i) The parking and maneuver area, as shown in the diagram which follows, adjacent to the near edge of the nearest travel lane equals or exceeds the distance indicated in the following table:
Parking and Maneuver Area (feet) 30 26 45 30 60 37 90 43
(ii) Parked vehicles do not adversely affect the available corner sight distance.
(iii) Additional travel lanes are not required for the existing traffic volumes to achieve a satisfactory level of operation.
(iv) Parking stalls will be adequately marked and spaced.
(v) Pedestrian activity is minimal within the parking maneuver area.
(2) It is recommended that existing angle parking be eliminated if an analysis of vehicle crashes indicates that the parking-related crash rate within the area of existing angle parking is greater than the rate on similar portions of the same street or other streets within the same municipality which have parallel parking.
(c) Parking meters. When parking is permitted, local authorities may install parking meters and appropriate pavement markings to designate parking stalls. The hours of effectiveness of parking meters must be indicated either on the meter or within the dome of the meter, but official traffic signs must be erected to indicate hours when parking is prohibited.
(d) Prohibition of kinds and classes. When parking is permitted, local authorities or the Department may prohibit certain kinds and classes of vehicles from parking for safety, capacity or environmental reasons. Official signs must indicate the prohibitions.
(e) Parking reserved for persons with disabilities. The Reserved Parking Penalties Sign (R7-8f) must be installed below all Reserved Parking Signs (R7-8), as provided in 75 Pa.C.S. § 3354(d) (relating to handicapped persons and disabled veterans).
(f) Miscellaneous restrictions.
(1) Local authorities or the Department may restrict or regulate parking without an engineering and traffic study to accomplish the following:
(i) Facilitate construction, maintenance or utility operations.
(ii) Eliminate long-term parking or parking in excess of a specified time limit
(iii) Provide for reserved parking spaces.
(iv) Provide for snow emergency routes.
(v) Provide for mail delivery or pickup.
(2) Restrictions for the elimination of long-term parking must apply only during short periods of time such as early morning hours when it will not seriously inconvenience local residents.
(g) Double parking. When parking is permitted, local authorities may, by local ordinance without an engineering and traffic study, authorize double parking (standing or parking on the roadway side of a vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a roadway) for the purpose of loading or unloading persons or property. On State-designated highways, double parking is not permitted without written approval of the Department.
(h) Authority. Local authorities may establish, revise or remove stopping, standing or parking restrictions on State-designated highways within their physical boundaries, except Department approval is required prior to revising or removing any of the following:
(1) Established in conjunction with a State or Federal aid project.
(2) Requested or posted by the Department for safety or capacity reasons.
(3) Included as a condition on a traffic signal permit.
§ 212.115. Posting of private parking lots.
(a) General. Posting of private property, including parking lots, giving notice to the public of parking restrictions as required by 75 Pa.C.S. §§ 3353(b)(2) and 3354(d)(3) (relating to prohibition in specified places; and additional parking regulations) shall be in accordance with this section.
(b) Public notice signs.
(1) The legend on public notice signs at private parking lots must indicate the restrictions which apply. In addition to a primary restriction such as those contained in subparagraph (i), the sign may contain one or more supplemental restrictions or messages of the type included in subparagraph (ii).
(i) Primary restrictions include messages such as PRIVATE PARKING, PARKING BY PERMIT ONLY, AUTHORIZED PARKING ONLY, PRIVATE PARKING FOR (____) APARTMENT and PARKING ONLY FOR PATRONS OF (____).
(ii) Secondary restrictions or messages may include applicable hours of the day, applicable days of the week, applicable charges and warnings that unauthorized vehicles may be towed.
(iii) The name and telephone number of the owner or other person in control or possession of the property should also be included on the legend.
(2) Public notice signs should generally be erected at each entrance to the private parking lot and positioned so as to face traffic entering the lot. If there are no designated entrances--such as when a lot has one or more sides continuously open to a roadway--one or more signs should be erected so as to be readily visible to an ordinarily observant driver. Minimum message size shall be as follows:
(i) A primary restriction as defined in paragraph (1)(i) must have a minimum height of 3 inches. Signs erected at a distance of more than 75 feet from an entrance point must have legend which is at least one additional inch in height for each 25-foot interval in the distance. The stroke width of the legend must be a minimum of 1/8 of the required height of the legend.
(ii) A secondary restriction as defined in paragraph (1)(ii) must have minimum dimensions equal to one-half of the minimum dimensions required for the primary restriction, except the height of the message must be at least 2 inches.
(3) Signs which have application during hours of darkness must have a retroreflectorized sign message or background and be positioned so as to be illuminated by the headlight beams of entering vehicles, or the sign may be illuminated during applicable hours of darkness so as to be readily visible to an ordinarily observant driver.
(4) Under 75 Pa.C.S. § 3353(b), the prosecution of an owner or towing a vehicle from a private parking lot is prohibited unless restrictions are posted in accordance with this subsection.
(c) Reserved parking signs or markings.
(1) Special signs may be used to reserve designated parking stalls for named persons or classes of people, for particular vehicles, or for persons with special placards or assigned permit numbers. When used, these signs may be erected at the front of each parking stall or, in the case of parallel parking, at intervals not exceeding 100 feet along the side of the stalls. The minimum size sign shall be 12 inches by 12 inches, and the minimum size message shall be 2 inches in height.
(2) In lieu of signs to designate parking stalls as noted in subsection (a), pavement markings may be used on the pavement or an applicable curb for this purpose if:
(i) The public notice sign indicates that a permit is required.
(ii) The markings are readily visible to an ordinarily observant driver.
(3) The Reserved Parking Sign (R7-8) must be used to designate reserved parking stalls for handicapped persons or severely disabled veterans. The Reserved Parking Penalties Sign (R7-8f), which indicates the minimum and maximum fine for violators and that violators may be towed, must be installed below the Reserved Parking Sign (R7-8).
(4) Parking stalls designated under paragraph (3) for handicapped persons or severely disabled veterans may only be used by vehicles bearing a handicapped person or severely disabled veteran registration plate or displaying a handicapped person or severely disabled veteran parking placard issued by the Commonwealth or another state.
(5) Whenever signs required to implement the provisions of paragraph (3) become either obsolete or missing, they must be replaced with new official signs as rapidly as is feasible. The costs associated with the installation and replacement of the required signs for a particular location must be borne by the owner or person in control or possession of the property on which the signs are to be erected.
§ 212.116. No Turn on Red Sign (R10-11 sign series).
(a) Warrants for no-turn-on-red restrictions. The following warrants may be used in addition to the warrants for no-turn on red restrictions in the MUTCD (relating to traffic signal signs).
(1) A right turn on red, or left turn on red from a one-way highway to another one-way highway, may be prohibited from an intersection approach where an engineering and traffic study indicates that one or more of the following conditions exist:
(i) The available corner sight distance between a driver desiring to turn on red and an approaching vehicle on the cross street is less than the minimum shown on the following table:
Cross Street Speed Limit (mph) Minimum Sight Distance* (feet) 20 120 25 150 30 190 35 220 40 270 45 320 50 360 55 410
* Sight distance is measured from a location 10 feet before a marked pedestrian cross walk, or, if none, 10 feet from the edge of the cross street roadway or curb line.
(ii) The intersection has more than four approaches or has restrictive geometry that is likely to cause vehicular conflicts which are not easily recognized by drivers.
(iii) The turning movement is allowed from more than one lane on a specific approach.
(iv) The vehicular turning movement would result in significant vehicular and pedestrian conflicts, such as locations where the crosswalk is designated as a school crossing or is used by large numbers of children, senior citizens or persons with physical disabilities. A no-turn-on-red restriction at these locations may only apply during the time periods that significant vehicular-pedestrian conflicts would occur, in accordance with paragraph (3).
(v) Opposing traffic has unusual movements, such as double left turns, which would not be expected by drivers turning on a red signal.
(vi) An analysis of vehicle crash data indicates that the turn-on-red movement has created an unsafe condition.
(2) Part-time or intermittent prohibition of the turn-on-red movement must be used at locations where a potential safety concern exists for only a portion of the day. These restrictions must be implemented by the use of one or more of the following:
(i) A Restricted Hours Panel (R3-20) under the No Turn On Red Sign.
(ii) A supplemental message incorporated directly into the No Turn On Red Sign.
(iii) A sign designating the hours the restriction is effective.
(iv) A blank-out No-Turn-On-Red Sign.
(3) A part-time or intermittent prohibition of the turn-on-red movement may be used at an intersection approach where vehicles turning on red would cross an at-grade railroad crossing within 200 feet and the traffic signal controller is preempted during train movements during the time the signal controller is preempted in accordance with paragraph (2).
(b) Application. This section applies to signalized roadway and driveway intersections along all highways.
(c) Engineering and traffic studies. Engineering and traffic studies required by subsection (a)(1) must be conducted by local authorities. The Department will be responsible for conducting the study at the following locations:
(1) At intersections where the traffic signal controller is preempted during train movements for a nearby crossing.
(2) At new or revised traffic signal installations when the traffic signal is designed by the Department.
(d) Department approval. Written approval of the Department's district executive must be obtained prior to installation of a No Turn on Red Sign (R10-11 Series) at any intersection where the Department has issued the traffic signal permit.
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