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RULES AND REGULATIONS

Title 67--TRANSPORTATION

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

[67 PA. CODE CH. 177]

Emissions Inspection Program

[33 Pa.B. 5706]

   The Department of Transportation (Department), Bureau of Motor Vehicles (Bureau) amends Chapter 177 (relating to emission inspection program) by adding provisions for vehicle emission inspection and maintenance (I/M) testing using the onboard diagnostic (OBD) systems in model year (MY) 1996 and newer vehicles.

   The I/M program, implemented under 75 Pa.C.S. §§ 4103, 4531, 4701, 4706, 4707, 4710, 6103 and 9104, is required by the Federal Clean Air Act (Clean Air Act), as amended by Pub. L. No. 101-52, 104 Stat. 2399-2712 (42 U.S.C.A. §§ 7401--26718) and Pub. L. No. 104-59, 109 Stat. 568 (1995), known as the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995. Implementation of emission testing using vehicle OBD systems is required by the Clean Air Act and recent amendments to 40 CFR Parts 51 and 85 (relating to regulations for preparation, adoption and submittal of implementation plans; and control of air pollution from mobile sources).

   Proposed rulemaking is omitted under 75 Pa.C.S. § 4706 (relating to prohibition on expenditures for emission inspection program), which exempts the regulations from the proposed rulemaking provisions of the act of July 31, 1968 (P. L. 769, No. 240) (45 P. S. §§ 1201 and 1202), known as the Commonwealth Documents Law, the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. §§ 745.1--745.12) and 75 Pa.C.S. § 4710 (relating to Vehicle Emission System Inspection Program Advisory Committee), which provides for initial submission of final regulations regarding the vehicle emission I/M program to the Office of Attorney General for review as to form and legality and thereafter to the Independent Regulatory Review Commission (IRRC) and the House and Senate Transportation Committees in accordance with the Regulatory Review Act.

Purpose of Chapter 177

   Chapter 177 implements an emission I/M program as required by the Clean Air Act and regulations promulgated thereunder, 40 CFR Parts 51 and 85.

Purpose of the Final-Omitted Rulemaking

   The final-omitted rulemaking incorporates OBD-I/M testing of MY 1996 or newer vehicles into the I/M program in this Commonwealth, in compliance with the Clean Air Act and amendments to 40 CFR Parts 51 and 85 (relating to requirements for preparation, adoption and submittal of implementation plans; and control of air pollution from mobile sources) which require states to implement OBD testing. The final-omitted rulemaking also implements gas cap testing and visual antitampering inspection in selected counties.

   The engines in vehicles MY 1996 and newer are largely electronically controlled. Sensors and actuators sense the operation of specific components (for example, oxygen sensors) and actuate others (for example, fuel injectors) to maintain optimal engine performance and control. An onboard computer controls all of these systems. With proper software, the onboard computer is capable of monitoring all of the sensors and actuators to determine whether they are working as intended. It can detect a malfunction or deterioration of the various sensors and actuators, usually well before the driver becomes aware of the problem through a loss in vehicle performance or drivability. The sensors and actuators, along with the diagnostic software in the onboard computer, make up what is called the OBD system.

   Many component failures that impact emissions can be electrical or even chemical in nature. The OBD system is intended to detect problems that may not be noticeable upon visual inspection. When the OBD system determines that a problem exists, a corresponding ''diagnostic trouble code'' is stored in the computer's memory. When the vehicle is taken to a service center or repair shop, a service technician can retrieve the stored diagnostic trouble codes from the computer memory of the vehicle using newly developed diagnostic tools. Since the diagnostic trouble codes will specifically identify the problem, the service technician can more quickly and accurately make the proper repair.

   The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.A. §§ 7401--7671q) as amended in 1990 required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set requirements for states to follow in designing and operating vehicle I/M programs. In addition to distinguishing between basic and enhanced I/M programs, the requirements also clarify how states can meet other minimum design requirements set by the Clean Air Act. One requirement applicable to both basic and enhanced I/M programs includes OBD system checks as part of the required periodic inspection.

   On November 5, 1992, the EPA published regulations meeting most of the requirements of the Clean Air Act. At the time the regulations were promulgated, however, Federal OBD certification standards had not yet been developed and published. To address the Clean Air Act's OBD-I/M requirement, the EPA reserved sections in the regulations with the understanding that the reserved sections would be amended on a future date. Although the Federal requirement to incorporate OBD into new vehicles began with MY 1994, manufacturers were allowed to request waivers on vehicles for MY 1994-95. Full compliance was not required on all light-duty cars and trucks sold in the United States until MY 1996. On August 6, 1996, the EPA published amendments to the 1992 I/M regulations establishing OBD-I/M performance standards. The 1996 amendments also established data collection, analysis and summary reporting requirements for the OBD-I/M testing element; established OBD test equipment requirements and the OBD test result reporting format; and identified those conditions that would result in an OBD-I/M pass, failure or rejection. Lastly, the August 6, 1996, amendments revised 40 CFR Part 85, Subpart W (relating to emission control systems performance warranty short test) to establish OBD-I/M as an official performance warranty short test under section 207(b) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.A. § 7541(b)).

   At the time the original OBD-I/M requirements were established, it was not practical to evaluate the real world, in-use performance of OBD because the vehicles in question were still too new and the number of vehicles in need of repair was too few to make pilot testing worthwhile. In 1998, the EPA further amended its OBD-I/M requirements to provide that state I/M programs begin OBD testing by January 1, 2001. In April 2001, the EPA amended its OBD-I/M regulations to: (1) provide states several options for extending the current deadline for mandatory implementation of OBD-I/M inspection beyond January 1, 2001; (2) clarify states' options regarding the integration of OBD-I/M checks into existing I/M programs; (3) revise and simplify the current list of diagnostic trouble codes that constitute the OBD-I/M failure criteria to include any code that leads the dashboard malfunction indicator light to illuminate; and (4) provide for exemptions from specific readiness code rejection criteria on OBD-equipped vehicles based upon vehicle MY.

   In addition to the inclusion of OBD-I/M testing in the I/M program, these amendments correct some organizational and typographical deficiencies in the existing regulations.

Significant Provisions of the Final-Omitted Rulemaking

   § 177.3.  Definitions. Since 1999, the Commonwealth has not conducted a basic emissions inspection program, conducting only enhanced programs in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties (Philadelphia region) and in Allegheny, Beaver, Washington and Westmoreland Counties (Pittsburgh region). Going forward, the inclusion of OBD-I/M testing will be incorporated into the enhanced program and expanded to other counties and regions in this Commonwealth. Consequently, the basic/enhanced distinction has no significance for the emission I/M program in this Commonwealth and the definitions have been eliminated. References to the basic program and use of the word ''enhanced'' as a modifier throughout the regulation have been eliminated in the final-omitted rulemaking.

   In addition, since air quality attainment status is determined on a regional basis, it is more appropriate to discuss elements of the program in terms of regions. The definition of ''I/M area'' has been replaced with ''I/M region.'' Insofar as air quality considerations may require, the Secretary may initiate emission inspections in a single county as well. Counties and regions in which an I/M program is currently being administered or envisioned are included in the definition of ''I/M region.''

   Also included are definitions for new terms and acronyms related to OBD technology. Definitions are provided for ''DTC--diagnostic trouble code,'' ''MIL--malfunction indicator light,'' ''OBD--onboard diagnostics,'' ''OBD data link connector (DLC),'' ''readiness code'' and ''scanner or scan tool.''

   § 177.22.  Commencement of inspections. The Department plans to begin the implementation of OBD-I/M testing on or before the close of the 2003 calendar year, as testing and recording equipment compatible with the Department's vehicle inspection information database is developed and marketed to inspection stations. This section provides that the Secretary will give notice by publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin of effective dates for the transition of the existing emission I/M inspection programs in the Philadelphia and Pittsburgh regions to programs which include OBD-I/M testing and to initiate OBD-I/M testing programs in other counties and regions as appropriate. The notice will provide motorists in those counties or regions with 60 days notice of the transition or initiation of the program.

   This section also recognizes that, over time, the number of pre-1996 vehicles (which, generally, were not manufactured with the OBD technology) required to receive actual tailpipe testing and analysis of emitted gasses under the final-omitted rulemaking will gradually decrease and their contribution to air pollution in the region in which they are registered will diminish. Consistent with EPA guidelines, therefore, this section provides that the Secretary can reduce the test cycle or eliminate the emission testing of these vehicles altogether, provided that emissions in the region are at or below State implementation plan levels and the I/M performance standards for the region are being met. Notably, this section also makes clear, however, that the requirements for annual safety inspections of all vehicles are not affected by any change in the emission I/M program.

   § 177.51.  Program requirements. This section is amended to include the provisions for OBD-I/M testing of vehicles of MY 1996 and newer once an effective date for implementation of the program in a given county or region is established by the Secretary. Consistent with EPA regulations and guidelines, MY 1996 and newer vehicles will receive both an OBD-I/M check and the existing fuel filler cap (gas cap) test. This section is amended to provide that as a vehicle MY becomes 25 years of age and fewer vehicles of that MY are driven, vehicles of that MY will be required to undergo only the gas cap test and a visual inspection.

   In regions of this Commonwealth where the I/M program has already been established and some vehicles are subject to acceleration simulation mode or dynamometer testing, the capability to perform the OBD-I/M check will be required for existing participating emission inspection stations. New inspection stations capable of performing only the OBD-I/M check will not be certified in these regions for 2 years following the promulgation of this rulemaking to ensure that motorists in those regions will be able to receive an emission inspection at any certified station, regardless of the kind of test that is required for their vehicle. It may reasonably be anticipated that after the OBD-I/M check has been in place for 2 years, the population of pre-MY 1996 vehicles will have diminished in those regions and motorist awareness of the differences in the emission inspection tests will have increased so that certification of OBD-I/M check only stations will not result in significant motorist confusion or dissatisfaction.

   § 177.106 (now § 177.275).  Repair technician training and certification. This section is amended to include language requiring training in OBD technology and the OBD testing requirements being implemented. It incorporates, but relocates to § 177.275, the existing language requiring completion of a course relating to the Commonwealth's emission I/M program and adds a requirement of completion of additional training specifically related to OBD-I/M technology and repair.

   § 177.202a.  OBD-I/M check equipment. This new section describes the performance features required of equipment used to perform the OBD-I/M check. Reference is made to specifications developed by the Department and its consultants ensuring that the data retrieved in the performance of the OBD-I/M check can be communicated to the Department's vehicle inspection information database.

   § 177.203.  Test procedures. This section is amended to delete provisions relating to a ''basic'' I/M program and eliminate the use of ''enhanced'' as a modifier. Procedures for establishing a vehicle's ''readiness'' for the OBD-I/M check as well as for conducting the test are added to this section. Procedures currently found only in Appendix B for performance of the gas cap test and procedures for performance of the visual inspection in § 177.204 (relating to basis for failure) have been moved to this section, a more appropriate location.

   § 177.204.  Basis for failure. This section includes criteria for failure of all the I/M program tests, not simply standards for permissible levels of emitted gasses. Criteria for failure of the OBD-I/M check are also included and track the requirements and recommendation of the EPA.

   § 177.252.  Emission inspection report. The amendments to this section eliminate provisions regarding the ''basic'' I/M program no longer conducted in this Commonwealth. Requirements for the report to be given the vehicle owner or operator under § 177.252 under the existing program are retained. Requirements of the report to be given to vehicle owners or operators on which the OBD-I/M check is performed have been added. The OBD-I/M check report details the readiness results and diagnostic trouble codes revealed in the test, as well as providing information on any applicable recall for the vehicle and the availability of warranty coverage.

   § 177.406.  Equipment. The amendments to this section include OBD scanners or scan tools in the list of equipment required at an official emission inspection station. The amendments also deletes reference to specifications for equipment at ''basic'' I/M stations.

   § 177.408.  Certified emission inspectors. This section is amended to delete references to a ''basic'' and ''enhanced'' I/M program. The amendments also include the training required for certification as an emission inspector for the OBD-I/M check.

   § 177.501.  Equipment approval procedures. This section is amended to delete references to a ''basic'' and ''enhanced'' I/M program and to remove provisions specific to the ''basic'' program no longer conducted in this Commonwealth. The amendments also delete the provisions for ''interim'' approval relevant only during the start-up period of the I/M program. The amendments also include new requirements to be met for approval of equipment to be used in the OBD-I/M check.

Persons and Entities Affected by the Final-Omitted Rulemaking

   The final-omitted rulemaking will affect the owners and operators of vehicles registered in this Commonwealth as well as individuals in the business of vehicle inspection and vehicle repair in the affected counties.

Fiscal Impact

   The final-omitted rulemaking will require the purchase of new equipment by existing emission inspection stations and by new stations in the areas in which an I/M program is being initiated. The cost will be recouped through the fees charged to vehicle owners for inspections. In some regions, the final-omitted rulemaking may nevertheless result in savings to vehicle owners in the form of lower cost of emission inspection with introduction of the simpler OBD-I/M check. In counties in which the final-omitted rulemaking initiates an I/M program, vehicle owners will experience increased costs for the emission inspection. These costs or savings to the general motoring public are not, however, readily measurable. Costs of the I/M tests are market driven and are not regulated by the Department. Station owners vary in the fee charged for I/M testing and vehicle owners have the opportunity to choose a station with a fee acceptable to them. The Department cannot, however, measure with any precision what costs and savings may result in the marketplace.

Regulatory Review

   Under 75 Pa.C.S. § 4710(e), the Department submitted a copy of the final-omitted rulemaking to the Office of Attorney General on August 12, 2003. The final-omitted rulemaking was approved as to form and legality by the Office of Attorney General on September 10, 2003. The Department submitted a copy of this final-omitted rulemaking on September 11, 2003, to IRRC and to the Chairpersons of the House and Senate Transportation Committees for review consistent with section 5 of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P. S. § 745.5). On October 10, 2003, the final-omitted rulemaking was tolled and resubmitted to IRRC and the Committees. In accordance with section 5(c) of the Regulatory Review Act, this final-omitted rulemaking was deemed approved by the Committees on October 30, 2003, and was approved by IRRC on November 6, 2003.

   In addition to the final-omitted rulemaking, the Committees were provided with a copy of a detailed Regulatory Analysis Form prepared by the Department. A copy of this material is available to the public upon request.

   In preparing the final-omitted rulemaking, the Department has considered the comments received from the EPA, the public and individuals in the business of vehicle inspection and repair.

Sunset Provisions

   The Department is not establishing a sunset date for this final-omitted rulemaking since the final-omitted rulemaking is necessary to comply with requirements of Federal laws regarding control of vehicle emissions.

Contact Person

   The contact person for this final-omitted rulemaking is Peter Gertz, Vehicle Inspection Division, 4th Floor, Riverfront Office Center, 1101 South Front Street, Harrisburg, PA 17104, pgertz@state.pa.us.

Authority

   The final-omitted rulemaking is adopted under the authority in 75 Pa.C.S. §§ 4103, 4531, 4701, 4706, 4707, 4710, 6103 and 9104.

Order

   The Department, acting under the authorizing statutes, orders that:

   (a)  The regulations of the Department, 67 Pa. Code Chapter 177, are amended by amending §§ 177.3, 177.22--177.24, 177.51--177.53, 177.101, 177.105, 177.201--177.204, 177.252, 177.253, 177.271--177.274, 177.281, 177.282, 177.291, 177.292, 177.304, 177.401, 177.404, 177.405--177.408, 177.421, 177.422--177.425, 177.431, 177.501--177.503, 177.521, 177.602, 77.603, 177.651 and Appendices A and B, by deleting §§ 177.21 and 177.106 and by adding §§ 177.202a, 177.202b, 177.275 and 177.601 to read as set forth in Annex A, with ellipses referring to the existing text to the regulations.

   (b)  The Secretary of the Department shall certify this order and Annex A and deposit them with the Legislative Reference Bureau as required by law.

   (c)  This order shall take effect upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.

ALLEN D. BIEHLER, P. E.,   
Secretary

   (Editor's Note: For the text of the order of the Independent Regulatory Review Commission, relating to this document, see 33 Pa.B. 5791 (November 22, 2003).)

   Fiscal Note:  18-384. No fiscal impact; (8) recommends adoption.

Annex A

TITLE 67.  TRANSPORTATION

PART I.  DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Subpart A.  VEHICLE CODE PROVISIONS

ARTICLE VII.  VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS

CHAPTER 177.  EMISSION INSPECTION PROGRAM

Subchapter A.  GENERAL PROVISIONS

GENERAL

§ 177.3.  Definitions.

   The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   ASM test--Acceleration Simulation Mode test--A one mode ''loaded'' mode emission test (ASM 5015), utilizing a dynamometer, which simulates driving a vehicle at a predetermined speed and driving condition.

   Antique motor vehicle--A motor vehicle, which displays a current antique motor vehicle registration plate issued by the Department, and which is consistent with the definition of ''antique motor vehicle'' as provided in section 102 of the Vehicle Code (relating to definitions).

   Approved exhaust emission analyzer--An instrument, developed for measuring the hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or oxides of nitrogen emissions from the exhaust system of a vehicle, which meets required emission analyzer specifications and program requirements and has been approved by the Department under § 177.406(b) (relating to equipment).

   BAR97--The acronym used for the California Bureau of Automotive Repair's Exhaust Gas Analyzer system Specifications provided in 1996, for the testing and documentation of technical specifications required for the approval of analyzer and dynamometer use in California for the measurement of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. These specifications, including performance criteria, design characteristics, instrument evaluation procedures and documentation, warranty requirements and logistics shall be met or surpassed for an exhaust gas analyzer and dynamometer to be considered equivalent to the BAR97 exhaust gas analyzer system. Copies of the BAR97 specifications may be obtained from the Department of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Automotive Repair, California Vehicle Inspection Program, 3116 Bradshaw Road, Sacramento, California 95827. A fee for this document may be required.

   BAR80--The acronym used for the California Bureau of Automotive Repair's Exhaust Gas Analyzer Specifications: 1979 provided in 1980 for the testing and documentation of technical specifications required for the approval of analyzer use in California for the measurement of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.

   Bureau--The Bureau of Motor Vehicles of the Department.

   Business day--Each day in which an appointed emission inspection station is open for business, excluding Sundays and selected State holidays determined by the Department.

   CO--carbon monoxide--A colorless, odorless gas formed by incomplete combustion of carbon, including gasoline. It is considered a mobile source pollutant.

   CO2--carbon dioxide--A colorless, odorless incombustible gas formed during respiration and combustion.

   Certificate of emission inspection--A serially numbered sticker that, when affixed to the windshield of a vehicle, indicates that the vehicle has passed an emission inspection consistent with this chapter. The certificate is also referred to in this chapter as a sticker.

   Certificate of waiver--An official Department document indicating that the requirement of passing emission reinspection has been waived for a vehicle under § 177.291 (relating to certificates of emission inspection).

   Certified emission inspector--A person who holds a valid certification card issued by the Bureau which certifies that the person is qualified and has passed the requirements to perform emission inspections on subject vehicles in an appointed emission inspection station.

   Certified repair technician--A person who has provided proof to the Department of completion of Department or Nationally recognized emission component repair training and has received a valid emissions repair technician certificate issued by the Department.

   Classic motor vehicle--A motor vehicle, but not a reproduction thereof, which displays a current classic motor vehicle registration plate issued by the Department and meets the definition provided in section 102 of the Vehicle Code.

   Collectible motor vehicle--A reconstructed motor vehicle, but not a reproduction thereof, substantially modified from the manufacturer's original specifications and appearance and maintained in a collectible condition as determined by the Department.

   Commonwealth emission inspection station--An inspection station appointed by the Commonwealth to conduct emission inspections on subject vehicles owned by and engaged exclusively in the performance of the official duties of the Federal government, the Commonwealth or a political subdivision of this Commonwealth.

   Consumer complaint emission inspection procedure--The method provided for consumers who wish to have the results of the emission inspection verified at an inspection facility or lane operated under contract to the Department where the verification is supervised by a Department designated official.

   DTC--Diagnostic Trouble Code--An alphanumeric code which is set in a vehicle's onboard computer when a monitor detects a condition likely to lead to (or which has already produced) a component or system failure.

   Decentralized inspection--A system for vehicle emission inspection using privately owned and operated, Department-certified facilities to provide for vehicle emission testing or allowing repairs, or both.

   Department--The Department of Transportation of the Commonwealth.

   EPA--The United States Environmental Protection Agency.

   Emission inspection--The testing of the exhaust emissions control systems of a subject vehicle as required by this chapter. The term includes an inspection performed utilizing an I/M emission test, an OBD-I/M check, an evaporative function test, gas cap test, visual inspection or any combination of these tests.

   Emission inspection program--A vehicle emission inspection program as defined by the EPA designed to meet an I/M performance standard.

   Emission inspection report--A document automatically generated by an emission inspection device once the testing cycle is completed.

   Federal standard--A minimum standard of vehicle or vehicle equipment performance issued under the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Act of 1991 (49 U.S.C.A. §§ 30101--30169), the act of July 5, 1994 (Pub. L. No. 103-272) (108 stat. 745), Chapter 323--Consumer Information, known as the Motor Vehicle Information, Standards and Requirements Act (49 U.S.C.A. §§ 32301--32309) or the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.A. § 7401--7671q).

   Field certified exhaust emission analyzer--An approved exhaust emission analyzer certified by the manufacturer or distributor as being properly calibrated at the emission inspection station according to the manufacturer's specifications and Department procedures and capable of properly recording, storing and transferring test data.

   Fleet emission inspection station--An inspection station appointed by the Commonwealth to inspect a minimum of 15 subject vehicles, space permitting, leased or owned and registered in the name of the person in whose name the certificate of appointment is issued.

   GVWR--Gross vehicle weight rating--The value specified by the manufacturer on the Federal weight certification label as the loaded weight of a single vehicle.

   Gas cap test--A fuel filler gas cap test, as specified in § 177.204(2)(iii) (relating to basis for failure), that determines whether or not the vehicle's gas cap is functioning as designed.

   General emission inspection station--An inspection station appointed by the Department to conduct emission inspections on all subject vehicles, including fleet, government and private vehicles.

   HC--Hydrocarbon--An organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen and often occurring in petroleum, natural gas, coal and bitumens.

   I/M--Inspection/Maintenance.

   I/M emission test--The testing of exhaust emissions of a subject vehicle, while the vehicle is running, for CO, HC, NO or other emitted gasses.

   I/M indicator insert (for safety certificate of inspection)--An insert containing an indicator in the background to be affixed to the safety certificates of inspection to indicate a requirement for an emission I/M inspection.

   I/M monthly insert (for a certificate of emission inspection)--An insert to be affixed to the certificate of emission inspection to show the expiration date of the current emission I/M inspection.

   I/M region--The designation and grouping of counties in the Commonwealth certified under § 177.51(d) (relating to program requirements for purposes of administration of emission inspection requirements) under this chapter. Currently, in accordance with § 177.51(d), Chester, Delaware, Bucks, Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties constitute the Philadelphia Region; Allegheny, Beaver, Washington and Westmoreland Counties constitute the Pittsburgh Region. Pending certification in accordance with § 177.51(d), Berks, Dauphin, Cumberland, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh, Northampton and York Counties shall constitute the South Central Region; Blair, Cambria, Centre, Erie, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Lycoming and Mercer Counties shall constitute the Northern Region.

   I/M registration indicator--An indicator on the registration card which identifies the vehicle as a subject vehicle which shall be emission inspected annually.

   Idle test--A vehicle emission inspection test procedure for sampling exhaust emissions which requires maintaining the vehicle's engine speed in the idle range of rpms. The vehicle engine speed is set with the operational range of rpms as prescribed in 40 CFR Part 51, Subpart S, Appendix B(I) (relating to test procedures), and the exhaust gas emissions are measured within the single idle speed range.

   Implement of husbandry--A vehicle designed or adapted and determined by the Department to be used exclusively for agricultural operations and infrequently operated or moved upon highways.

   Inspection area--The area in which emission inspections shall be conducted.

   Light duty trucks--Trucks weighing less than 9,000 pounds GVWR.

   Light duty vehicles--Passenger cars or multi-purpose vehicles weighing less than 6,000 pounds GVWR.

   Limited fleet inspection periods--Inspection periods in which approved fleet owners/lessors are required to emission inspect their vehicles, as specified in the Application for Fleet Stations form provided by the Department.

   MIL--Malfunction Indicator Light--Dashboard light illuminated when a vehicle's onboard computer detects conditions likely to result in emissions exceeding standards by 1 1/2 times or greater. The MIL may display ''Check Engine,'' ''Service Engine Soon,'' or other similar message, or a symbol or picture representing an automobile engine.

   MY--Model Year--The calendar year so designated by the manufacturer of a vehicle as the model year for a particular vehicle design.

   NMHC--Nonmethane hydrocarbons--A mobile source or exhaust pollutant for which the EPA has set allowable standards.

   NO--Oxides of nitrogen--A mobile source or exhaust pollutant for which the EPA has set allowable standards.

   OBD--Onboard Diagnostics--A system of vehicle component and condition monitors controlled by a central, onboard computer designed and programmed, among other things, to signal the motorist when conditions exist which could lead to (or which has already produced) a component or system failure.

   OBD Data Link Connector (DLC)--The interface which allows connection of the vehicle's OBD computer to an OBD scanner. Connecting an OBD scanner to the DLC allows I/M inspectors and vehicle repair technicians to read the readiness status of the vehicle's various onboard monitors and to read any diagnostic trouble codes recorded by the OBD computer.

   OBD-I/M Check--An inspection and evaluation of a vehicle's emission control systems utilizing the vehicle's OBD system as provided in § 177.203 (relating to test procedures) and § 177.204.

   On-road testing device--An exhaust gas analyzer capable of measuring vehicle exhaust gas content outside of the emission inspection station environment, while the vehicle is in motion on the road or at a roadside stop.

   PA97--The emission inspection analyzer designed to meet the requirements and specifications for idle testing of this Commonwealth's emission inspection program as defined in Appendix A (relating to acceleration simulation mode: Pennsylvania procedures, standards, equipment specifications and quality control requirements).

   PA97 with dynamometer--The emission inspection analyzer and dynamometer designed to meet the requirements and specifications for ASM testing of this Commonwealth's emission inspection program as defined in Appendix A.

   Ppb--Part per billion.

   Ppm--Part per million.

   Qualified Commonwealth employee--An individual, police officer or qualified Department employee, who has completed training in the inspection or weighing of vehicles as required by section 4704, 4981 or 8302 of the Vehicle Code (relating to inspection by police or Commonwealth personnel; weighing and measurement of vehicles; and powers and duties of department).

   Quality assurance officer--A person designated by the Department to investigate, inspect and supervise the operations of emission inspection stations.

   Qualifying repairs--Vehicle repairs necessary to correct the deficiencies which resulted in a vehicle's failure of the emission inspection test and which count toward the minimum dollar amount required before a waiver may be issued. For those repairs where repair or replacement of emission-related parts requires replacement of other non-emission related equipment constructed as one indivisible unit by the manufacturer, the total replacement costs or repair costs may be counted toward qualifying repairs.

   Rpm--Revolutions per minute.

   Readiness code--A status flag stored by a vehicle's onboard computer which is different from a DTC in that it does not indicate a vehicle component or system failure, but rather indicates whether or not the component or system in question has been recently checked by the OBD system to determine if it is functioning properly.

   Recognized repair facility--A business engaged in the diagnosis and repair of automotive engines and related systems, and one that has been issued or applied for a State Sales Tax identification number by the Commonwealth or another state jurisdiction.

   Registration recall--A formal action of the Department to withdraw the vehicle registration of a vehicle owner or operator for failure to produce proof of correction or waiver of an on-road emission test failure.

   Residency exemption--A document issued by the Department stating that a residency exemption application has been verified and approved, and that the vehicle listed is exempt from an emission inspection.

   Residency exemption application--An application issued by the Department and used by a Commonwealth vehicle owner residing outside of a designated emission I/M program area to apply for an exemption from emission inspection when the owner has incorrectly received an I/M indicator on the registration card or registration renewal card.

   Scanner or scan tool--A PC-based or handheld device used to interface with a vehicle's onboard computer through its DLC for the purpose of determining readiness status and reading DTCs.

   Secretary--The Secretary of the Department.

   Special mobile equipment--

   (i)  Vehicles not designed or used primarily for the transportation of persons or property and only incidentally operated or moved over a highway, including, but not limited to: ditch digging apparatus; well boring apparatus; earth moving and road construction and maintenance machinery, such as asphalt spreaders, bituminous mixers, bucket loaders, snowplows, ditchers, graders, finishing machines, road rollers, scarifiers, earth moving carryalls, scrapers, power shovels and draglines; and self-propelled cranes and tractors, other than truck tractors.

   (ii)  The term does not include: house trailers; dump trucks; truck-mounted transit mixers, cranes or shovels; or other vehicles designed for the transportation of persons or property to which machinery has been attached.

   Street rod--A motor vehicle, or a reproduction thereof, with a model year of 1948 or older which has been materially altered or modified by the removal, addition or substitution of essential parts and with a gross weight or registered gross weight of not more than 9,000 pounds.

   Subject emission control device--The vehicle emission control devices, including the catalytic convertor, the fuel tank inlet restrictor and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve which are required to be inspected as part of the emission inspection program.

   Transient test--A vehicle emission inspection test in which the vehicle is tested for exhaust emissions under conditions simulating actual on-road driving conditions. Testing equipment includes a dynamometer that permits simulation of driving and exhaust gas analyzer equipment that analyzes the exhaust gas emissions under various driving conditions.

   Two-speed test--A vehicle emission inspection test in which the exhaust emissions are measured at two ranges of engine revolutions per minute (rpm) as prescribed in 40 CFR Part 51, Subpart S, Appendix B(II) (relating to test procedures two speed idle test).

   Unsafe condition--A defect, malfunction or condition which may expose an emission inspector to harm in the performance of an emission inspection of that vehicle.

   VIID--Vehicle Inspection Information Database--The vehicle database established to collect inspection test data and to provide emission inspection test standards to emission inspection stations for the purpose of conducting the appropriate emission inspection.

   VIN--Vehicle identification number--A combination of numbers or letters, or both, which the manufacturer assigns to a vehicle for identification purposes, or, if no VIN is present on the vehicle, which the Department may assign for identification purposes.

   Vehicle Code--75 Pa.C.S.

   Vehicle equipment standard--A minimum standard for vehicle performance or vehicle equipment performance which meets the needs of vehicle safety, noise control or air quality control, and which is practicable and provides objective criteria.

   Vehicle Inspection Division--The division within the Bureau which administers vehicle equipment and inspection matters.

   Vehicle year--The date of manufacture of a vehicle as specified by the VIN, or, if this number is not available or cannot be interpreted for the year, the annual production period of the vehicle as designated by the manufacturer.

IMPLEMENTATION OF EMISSION INSPECTION PROGRAM

§ 177.21.  (Reserved).

§ 177.22.  Commencement of inspections.

   Prior to implementation of the OBD-I/M check and related inspection provisions of this chapter, the Department will provide affected vehicle owners with at least 60 days notice. The notice will be published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, as provided for in 75 Pa.C.S. § 4706(b.1) (relating to prohibition on expenditures for emission inspection program).

§ 177.23.  Notification of requirement for emission inspection.

   The Department will notify the owner or lessee of a subject vehicle that is required to have an emission inspection.

§ 177.24.  Program evaluation.

   A program evaluation of the vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program that meets EPA requirements will be performed with date submitted to EPA on a biennial basis.

I/M PROGRAM

§ 177.51.  Program requirements.

*      *      *      *      *

   (c)  Inspection. Subject vehicles shall be emission inspected annually in coordination with a safety inspection according to procedures established by the Bureau, subject to paragraphs (1)--(3). A safety inspection certificate for a vehicle subject to an emission inspection may not be affixed to the vehicle until the subject vehicle has passed an emission inspection or received an exemption or a waiver as provided in § 177.281 (relating to issuance of waiver). The term ''safety inspection certificate'' as used in this subsection does not include temporary inspection approval indicators as defined in § 175.2 (relating to definitions). Safety inspection stations are not required to conduct emission inspections to maintain certification as safety inspection stations.

   (1)  When the Secretary certifies, by publication of a notice in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, that the number of subject pre-MY 1996 vehicles constitutes less than 40% of the total subject vehicles registered in an I/M county or region, subject pre-MY 1996 vehicles in that I/M county or region shall be inspected biennially in coordination with an annual safety inspection, provided that emissions in that I/M county or region are at or below levels which are in compliance with the State Implementation Plan, conformity requirements under the Clean Air Act, and the I/M performance standard.

   (2)  At such time as the Secretary certifies, by publication of a notice in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, that the number of subject pre-MY 1996 vehicles constitutes less than 20% of the total subject vehicles registered in an I/M county or region, pre-MY 1996 vehicles shall no longer be subject to the I/M program, provided that emissions in that I/M county or region are at or below levels which are in compliance with the State Implementation Plan, conformity requirements under the Clean Air Act, and the I/M performance standard.

   (3)  Nothing in this section relieves any vehicle from the requirements for annual safety inspections under Chapter 175 (relating to vehicle equipment and inspection).

   (d)  I/M counties or regions covered. The Department will establish counties or regions within this Commonwealth which are subject to an emission inspection by certification of the Secretary of the need to comply with Federal law and will publish the certification as a notice in the Pennsylvania Bulletin listing the I/M counties or regions.

   (e)  Model year coverage. Subject gasoline-powered motor vehicles with a model year of 1975 and newer with a GVWR of 9,000 pounds or less and registered in an I/M county or region are subject to an emission inspection. Current model year vehicles and vehicles driven less than 5,000 miles per year are exempt from this requirement.

   (f)  Exhaust emission test types. The following types of tests will be administered to the appropriate model years and fuel types, subject to subsection (c)(2):

   (1)  Prior to the date established in accordance with § 177.22 (relating to commencement of inspections, subject vehicles registered in counties in the Philadelphia Region will be required to undergo the following tests:

Model Year Test Type
1975-1980 vehicles and 1975-1983 light duty trucks. One-speed idle test; gas cap test; visual inspection.
1981 and newer vehicles and 1984 and newer light duty trucks. ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function tests (pressure, purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1981 and newer full time all wheel drive vehicles.Two speed idle test, visual inspection, pressure and gas cap test.

   (2)  On and after the date established in accordance with § 177.22 (relating to commencement of inspections) subject vehicles MY 1996 and newer registered in counties in the Philadelphia Region will be required to undergo the following tests:

Model Year Test Type
1996 and newer vehicles 8,500 GVWR and under. OBD-I/M check; gas cap test.
1996 and newer vehicles between 8,501 and 9,000 GVWR. Two speed idle test, visual inspection and gas cap test.

All subject vehicles MY 1975-1995 registered in counties in the Philadelphia Region shall be tested in accordance with the following table:


Calendar Year Model Year Test Type
2003 1975-1977 vehicles and light duty trucks. Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1978-1980 vehicles and 1978-1983 light duty trucks.One-speed idle test; gas cap test; visual inspection.
1981-1995 vehicles and 1984-1995 light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1981-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure and gas cap test.
2004 1975-1978 vehicles and light duty trucks.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1979-1980 vehicles and 1979-1983 light duty trucks.One-speed idle test; gas cap test; visual inspection.
1981-1995 vehicles and 1984-1995 light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1981-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2005 1975-1979 vehicles and light duty trucks.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1980 vehicles and 1980-1983 light duty trucks.One-speed idle test; gas cap test; visual inspection.
1981-1995 vehicles and 1984-1995 light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1981-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2006 1975-1980 vehicles and light duty trucks.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1981-1983 light duty trucks.One speed idle test; gas cap test; visual inspection.
1981-1995 vehicles and 1984-1995 light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1981-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2007 1975-1981 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1982-1983 light duty trucks.One speed idle test; gas cap test; visual inspection.
1982-1995 vehicles and 1984-1995 light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1982-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2008 1975-1982 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1983 light duty trucks. One speed idle test; gas cap test; visual inspection.
1983-1995 vehicles and 1984-1995 light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1983-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2009 1975-1983 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1984-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1984-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2010 1975-1984 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1985-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1985-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles.Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2011 1975-1985 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1986-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1986-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2012 1975-1986 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1987-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1987-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2013 1975-1987 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1988-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1988-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2014 1975-1988 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1989-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1989-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2015 1975-1989 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1990-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1990-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2016 1975-1990 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1991-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1991-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2017 1975-1991 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1992-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1992-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2018 1975-1992 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1993-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1993-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2019 1975-1993 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1994-1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1994-1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2020 1975-1994 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles.Gas cap test; visual inspection.
1995 vehicles and light duty trucks.ASM 1 (ASM5015); evaporative system function test (pressure purge and gas cap test); visual inspection.
1995 full time all wheel drive vehicles. Two speed idle test; visual inspection; pressure purge and gas cap test.
2021 and thereafter. 1975-1995 vehicles, light duty trucks and full time all wheel drive vehicles. Gas cap test; visual inspection.

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